There has been a growing interest in realizing quantum simulators for physical systems where perturbative methods are ineffective. The scalability and flexibility of circuit quantum electrodynamics make it a promising platform for implementing various types of simulators, including lattice models of strongly coupled field theories. Here, we use a multimode superconducting parametric cavity as a hardware-efficient analog quantum simulator, realizing a lattice in synthetic dimensions with complex hopping interactions. The coupling graph, i.e., the realized model, can be programmed in situ. The complex-valued hopping interaction further allows us to simulate, for instance, gauge potentials and topological models. As a demonstration, we simulate a plaquette of the bosonic Creutz ladder. We characterize the lattice with scattering measurements, reconstructing the experimental Hamiltonian and observing important precursors of topological features including nonreciprocal transport and Aharonov-Bohm caging. This platform can be easily extended to larger lattices and different models involving other interactions.
©J. S. C. Hung et al., “Quantum simulation of the bosonic Creutz ladder with a parametric cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 127, 100503 (2021).