**Abstract **

Programmable arrays of optical traps enable the assembly of configurations of single atoms to perform controlled experiments on quantum many-body systems. Finding the sequence of control operations to transform an arbitrary configuration of atoms into a predetermined one requires solving an atom reconfiguration problem quickly and efficiently. A typical approach to solving atom reconfiguration problems is to use an assignment algorithm to determine which atoms to move to which traps. This approach results in control protocols that exactly minimize the number of displacement operations; however, this approach does not optimize for the number of displaced atoms or the number of times each atom is displaced, resulting in unnecessary control operations that increase the execution time and failure rate of the control protocol. In this work we propose the assignment-rerouting-ordering (ARO) algorithm to improve the performance of assignment-based algorithms in solving atom reconfiguration problems. The ARO algorithm uses an assignment subroutine to minimize the total distance traveled by all atoms, a rerouting subroutine to reduce the number of displaced atoms, and an ordering subroutine to guarantee that each atom is displaced at most once. The ordering subroutine relies on the existence of a partial ordering of moves that can be obtained using a polynomial-time algorithm that we introduce within the formal framework of graph theory. We numerically quantify the performance of the ARO algorithm in the presence and in the absence of loss and show that it outperforms the exact, approximation, and heuristic algorithms that we use as benchmarks. Our results are useful for assembling large configurations of atoms with high success probability and fast preparation time, as well as for designing and benchmarking novel atom reconfiguration algorithms.

© El Sabeh, R., Bohm, J., Ding, Z., Maaz, S., Nishimura, N., El Hajj, I., Mouawad, A. E., & Cooper-Roy, A. (2023). Efficient algorithms to solve atom reconfiguration problems. II. Assignment-rerouting-ordering algorithm. Physical Review. A/Physical Review, A, 108(2). https://doi.org/10.1103/physreva.108.023108